Why is there something in the universe instead of nothing?…

7 May

 

“The Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason” (1714):

“…now we…make use of the great…principle that nothing takes place without a sufficient reason; in other words, that nothing occurs for which it would be impossible for someone who has enough knowledge of things to give a reason adequate to determine why the thing is as it is and not otherwise. This principle having been stated, the first question which we have a right to ask will be, ‘Why is there something rather than nothing?’…. Further, assuming that things must exist, it must be possible to give a reason why they should exist as they do and not otherwise.”

We all know that Leibniz attributes the final reason for things to God. But, God, an entity that possibly exists but we don’t grasp the entire meaning, is not sufficient reason for a scientific explanation for why there’s a lack of something, why there is large “holes” in space, called the bootes void. These holes are not completely empty, some contain a few random galaxies, but the vast majority don’t have stars, galaxies, planets, or any kind of visible matter. Curiously enough, our Milky Way galaxy (member of the Local Group), is locates at the edge of one of these voids, which is called the “local void.”

But there is this bigger void, approximately 25 million light years in diameter, covering about 0.27% of the entire diameter of the known universe. With only 60 galaxies, instead f the average 10,000 galaxies, nobody knows for sure why they exist. However, several “explanations” were advanced, one of them is akin to a science-fiction novel. Maybe they exist due to the existence of a highly advanced civilization , a Type 3 civilization, that have created a dynasphere around stars [1] and is actually extracting a huge amount of energy to run their power plants {1}.

universe_hole

Among other scientific explanations is the “inflation theory” [2] suggesting that in the first fractions of a second after the universe come into existence by the big bang, matter was not equally distributed in spacetime due to cosmic fluctuations, and this resulted in voids. These are mapped in the cosmic microwave background radiation, the left-over thermal radiation after the big bang and also known by the big bang “afterglow”, cooled by the expansion of the Universe to just 2.725 degree above the absolute zero, appearing not as visible light, but in the form of short-wavelength  radio waves (principally microwaves) {2}.

cbr

The cosmic microwave background radiation with the biggest voids observed. Image credit: ESA Planck collaboration.

Whatever these voids represent, they are among the most mysterious facts of our universe.

REFERENCES:

Books:

[1] – Freeman Dyson, Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation, Science, Vol. 131, June 3, 1960, pp. 1667-1668.

[2] – Ian G. Moss, quantum theory, black holes and inflation (John wiley & Sons, New York, 1996)

Sites:

{1} – http://mkaku.org/home/articles/the-physics-of-extraterrestrial-civilizations/

{2} – http://www.ctc.cam.ac.uk/outreach/origins/inflation_zero.php

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4 Responses to “Why is there something in the universe instead of nothing?…”

  1. EXPERIMENTAL Quantum Anti-gravity April 7, 2018 at 3:58 am #

    I do have the final and ultimate answer to this most important question.

    But we should debate it, anyway.

    Please, Let me know, if you are interested. :-))

    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was wrong.
    Parmenides of Elea was correct.

    • Mario J. Pinheiro April 7, 2018 at 9:26 am #

      In my opinion, you should write a text about this issue. Go ahead!

      • EXPERIMENTAL Quantum Antigravity April 7, 2018 at 7:20 pm #

        THANK YOU, Prof. Pinheiro !!! :-))

        If I remember correctly, the above quoted Leibniz’s postulate is known as: The Principle of Sufficient Reason.

        During his times, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is considered to be the greatest genius in human history, even though Newton seemed to be more well-known in popular opinion.

        It would be difficult to blame Leibniz for his faith in God.

        As far as I do agree with Leibniz’s Principle, I think we should also apply it to the existence of God, i.e. :

        Why is there the Creator God rather than nothing?

        And I can imagine why Leibniz might have had refrained from asking such question, at least publicly.

        I want to say that I am an open-minded agnostic. My intuition tells me that there is “someone”, or “something”, that we can call “God”. All religious traditions have been pointing to the same Universal Principle, which extends beyond the tangible material reality, in the best way they could, under the circumstances.

        In my opinion, the starting point on the path to directly investigate possible existence of “God” is our own consciousness.

        If consciousness is merely an epiphenomenon stemming from brain activity, then there is no chance for “God”.

        However, if consciousness is a “real”, autonomous, albeit non-physical phenomenon in its own right, then I think “God” is a possibility.

        As to the ultimate answer to the famous Leibniz’s question, it had been already there, long before Leibniz even asked it. It was given by Parmenides of Elea, in one or two sentences !!

        I will try to elaborate a bit on it in my next post.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL Quantum Antigravity April 8, 2018 at 2:37 am #

    Dear Prof. Pinheiro,
    if you ask me: Why are there large “holes” in space, called the bootes voids, like the one that is approximately 25 million light years in diameter, covering about 0.27% of the entire diameter of the known universe, RATHER THAN THE USUAL INTERGALACTIC “STUFF”, then I will honestly tell you that in my opinion it is simply impossible to answer this question, until such time in the distant future that we would be able to obtain enough of sufficiently reliable empirical evidence, which is at best highly DOUBTFUL.

    And this is as opposed to the Leibniz’s question, which has a trivial answer, in one or two sentences, as given by Parmenides of Elea.

    Mario J. Pinheiro, April 7, 2018 at 9:26am WROTE:
    ” In my opinion, you should write a text about this issue. Go ahead! ”

    Well, as a matter of fact, I had already written such text,
    in August 2009, that was slightly revised in October 2013,
    comprising about 80 pages.

    Parmenides of Elea made his point in one or two sentences, however, I felt that for the benefit of general reader I need to “hammer” his point well enough, almost ad infinitum, to get it across.

    My text is available by email, on request.

    I have also had it posted on the internet since 2009,
    and it has been my absolute BESTSELLER ever since! :-))

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