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The Art of Scientific Illustration

21 Apr

 One Picture is Worth Ten Thousand Words – Confucius.

Create, as if your life depends upon it – Jessie Shaw

There is hardly a more familiar artifact of modern life than the so-called scientific illustrations. That is, the diagram or picture in isometric or linear perspective with notations for scale and measurement which show how machines or houses or even human beings are put together and taken apart and how they work. Who, indeed, has never depended on such an illustration for assembling a Christmas bicycle or a Sears & Roebuch porch swing (not to mention for constructing an atomic reactor or preparing for open heart surgery)? So taken for granted is the ubiquitous scientific illustration that few scholars have ever sensed that it has any historical interest. – Samuel Y. Edgerton, Jr. [1]

Leonardo’s drawing of an ornithopter. He was inspired by the observation of birds flying, and this drawing is considered the first scientific illustration. Image credit: NASA/Photo Researchers, Inc.

The art of scientific drawing is an irreplaceable method for the better apprehension of ideas and a way to prepare the ground for new discoveries. All along the history of science, we know of great genius that relied on drawing to discover or better express his/her ideas.

The first men of science illustrating their writings were Leonardo da Vinci (see the ornithopter), Francis Bacon, Galileo, William Harvey, Descartes.

Leonardo was very eager to keep his secrets, not wanting they fall into the wrong hands. For this motive, he had a preferred left-hand writing in his notebooks (called ‘mirror writing’), while employing his hand-writing in conventional communication (in his letters). Movement specialist Grant Ramey [2] sustains that Da Vinci uses ‘mirror writing’ because he was passionate by symmetry and the human form in art and science. Apparently, Da Vinci wrote in his notebooks from right to left, with his left hand, in order to keep thinking (instead of to remain focused on his own writing), see here.

A scientific illustration is an important form of art, intending at the same time accurately transmit scientific knowledge. Interestingly, Goethe is quoted to have said that you really do not see a plant until you actually draw it…

Why we should start to draw figures in our intellectual and aesthetic activities? In order to understand the power of drawing, let us start to quote here another great man, Thomas H. Huxley, since it is with them that we learn: «[…] I should, in the first place, secure that training of the young in reading and writing, and in the habit of attention and observation, both to that which is told them, and that which they see, which everybody agrees to. But in addition to that, I should make it absolutely necessary for everybody, for a longer or shorter period, to learn to draw.»

In Meno, famous dialogue between Socrates and one of Meno’s slave (a boy), see Ref.[3] to read the complete dialogue, it is clear that by drawing and with the right questions, we may “recall” the knowledge we have in our minds. This famous dialogue depicts the problem of teaching science, in fact, a very old topic in philosophy of science, the problem of the “tacit knowledge” that we all may eventually possess.

We quote next to a short part of this important dialogue, led by Socrates while drawing on the ground.

«Meno: Yes, Socrates. But what do you mean by this, that we do not learn and what is called learning is recollection? Can you teach me that this is so? […]

Meno: Certainly. Step forward here.

Socrates: Now, is he Greek and speaks Greek?

Meno: Absolutely. He was born in the house.

Socrates: Then pay close attention to see whether he seems to recollect or to be learning from me.

M: I certainly will.

So: Tell me, boy, do you know that a square is like this? [Socrates draw a square on the ground, see 1]

Slave: I do.

So: And so a square has these lines, four of them, all equal? [see 2]

Slave: Of course.

So: And these ones going through the center are also equal? [see 3]

Slave: Yes.

So: And so there would be larger and smaller versions of this area? [see 4]

Slave: Certainly.

So: Now, if this side were two feet and this side two feet also, how many feet would the whole be? Look at it like this: if this one were two feet

but this one only one foot, wouldn’t the area have to be two feet taken once? [see 5]

Slave: Yes.

So: When this one is also two feet, there would be twice two?

Slave: There would.

So: An area of twice two feet?

Slave: Yes.

So: How much are twice two feet? Calculate and tell me. [see 6]

Slave: Four, Socrates. [see 7]

So: Couldn’t there be one different from this, doubled, but of the same kind, with all the lines equal, as in that one? [see 8]

Slave: Yes.

So: And how many feet in the area?

Slave: Eight.

So: Now could one draw another figure double the size of this, but similar, that is with all its sides equal like this one? [see 9]

Slave: Yes.

So: How many feet will its area be?

Slave: Eight.

So: Now then, try to tell me how long each of its sides will be. The present figure has a side of two feet. What will be the side

of the double-sized one?

Slave: It will be double, Socrates, obviously.

So: You see, Meno, that I am not teaching him anything, only asking. Now he thinks he knows the length of the side of the

eight-feet square.

MENO: Yes.

So: But does he?

Meno: Certainly not.

So: He thinks it is twice the length of the other.

MENO: Yes.

So: Now watch how he recollects things in order — the proper way to recollect.

Archimedes was also known to write in whatever surfaces he had at hand, on the sawdust-covered floors, on the sand, drawing geometric shapes on the extinguished fires. That ‘s why the majority of Archimedes drawings are forever lost. He spent hours, sited on the floor, like most geometers at his time did, since it was too expensive to scribbled on a papyrus and then thrown it away.

Galileo Galilei with the help of his telescope (invented by him) also made the first drawing of the moon. The consequences were controversial since the Catholic Church saw in his drawings, his sketches of the moon, irregular surface, full of craters, a proof that the heavenly bodies were not perfect, as supposed before. But the dialectical fight between science and religion was just beginning {5}. the old war between the Catholic Church and science made the popes suspicious of the scientific findings and induce them to create the Vatican Observatory with headquarters at the papal summer residence in Castel Gandolfo, Italy, outside Rome. Quite surprisingly, they also have a research center, the Vatican Observatory Research Group, hosted by Steward Observatory at the University of Arizona, Tucson, USA. Located at the Mount Graham International Observatory, in southeastern Arizona, the Vatican possesses the 1.8m Alice P. Lennon Telescope with its Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility, known together as the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. Vatican astronomers said recently that it is okay that people believe in ET’s [5].

Hiero II calling Archimedes to fortify Syracuse. Archimedes was considered at the time a great mind in matters of military strategy. Painting by Sebastiano Ricci. Image credit:

Galileo first drawing of the Moon.

Remark that by drawing you may understand the Pythagoras theorem (see also here).

We must not lose sight that analytical equations represent spatial structures. Our mind must deal with this “hidden” aspect of the mathematical formalism. This is most important for people working in visual science, like computers programming {2}.

Researches were done by Professor Shaaron Ainsworth of the University of Nottingham’s School of Psychology, and colleagues from La Trobe and Deakin Universities in Australia, have shown that students learn better when they are endowed to draw, a method which helps students in visualizing abstract concepts, to recall and to more easily engage in communicating with each other. Teachers at school should endeavor to teach and encourage students to draw what they have learned since this is a powerful method to apprehend any subject, and a powerful process when aiming to transmit ideas to other people {4}. According to Horst Bredekamp [6], it was the ability to draw shown by Galileo that allowed him to better understand Nature; due to their artistic abilities, he could see better than others not gifted in the arts of illustration.


[1] Samuel Y. Edgerton, Jr., in “The Renaissance Development of the Scientific Illustration”

[2] Science and Education, Thomas H. Huxley

[3] Meno, by Platon

[4] Scientific Illustrations, by John L. Ridgway

[5] Vatican Astronomers says its okay to believe in ET, by Nancy Atkinson

[6] Galileo in Context, (p. 180) Edited by Jürgen Renn


{1} The Craft of Scientific Illustrations [contains important advice on how to draw a scientific illustration] []

{2} The importance of drawing

{3} Drawing pictures key to learn science

{4} Drawing and doodling can help you learn science

{5} Catholic Church and Science

The Wizard’s Apprentice

1 Nov

Tarkovsky:  “ there is nothing more beautiful and
mysterious than simplicity.”
– Andrei Tarkovsky

Goethe wanted to give us a lesson with his poetic masterpiece «the aprentice of the wizard» written in 1797 (“Der Zauberlehrling” in German). In Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s poem, the wizard’s assistant try to work out some of the magic acts performed by the wizard, but without to properly control them. Walt Disney parodiate this situation in the 1940 animated movie Fantasia (watch the trailer here) with music by the French composer Paul Abraham Dukas (1865-1935). In his other masterpiece, Faust, he took pratically thirty years of his life writing (uncontinuosly), but every new experience of his life was deeply meditated, wandering into every field of knowledge and, at the end, coming back with sorrow and unsatisfaction, showing to him the eternal problem of the thinker and the various nuances of the social existence of all of us.

The word Magic comes from the Persian language, Magu-sh, name given by the Persian and Medes (people that lived in the area called Media in the actual Iran) to the priests of the religion of Zaratustra (their disciples were called Meghestom), and it was used by Jeremias (Book of) to designate a Babylonian priest. The primitive meaning seems to be “worship of the light” [2]. For the Parsees, the Medes, and Egyptians the term Magic meant a higher knowledge of nature, where religion and astronomy made an integral part of it. The Magi were driven by justice, truth, aiming to preserve their secret wisdom.

Dr. Faustus, Don Giovanni, Frankenstein, like the wizard’s apprentice, they all represent in many ways an archetypal hero who challenge authority and the society (and thus God), in a transgression that represent the eternal tragedy of humanity, seeking dominate nature and the others fellow beings via their seductive and destructive power.

But the judgement of the apprentice (aren’t we all?) is not so simple, because he faces an epistemological crisis about the limits of the human knowledge,  the undecibility (does we have a soul? can we built a robot at our own image? what can we discover investigating the “big questions” beyond the reasonable?…), attaining the «[…] porous boundaries between human and nonhuman, organic and inorganic» [1].

Mozart’s Don Giovanni inspired many artists, composers poets, writers (Byron, Baudelaire, Mérimée, Pushkin, Tolstoi), philosophers,…One of the most famous arias of Don Giovanni is “Il mio tesoro” (“My Treasure”), and I propose you to listen here sang by the famous Irish tenor John McCormack.

Humanity’s greatest strength is his ability for thinking, for sure, and our abstract thought separate us from the animal kingdom in a great measure, althoug in the actuality we are ruled by shameless people…Political scientists (it is not clear to me why they call themselves “scientists”) opened the Pandora’s box, they are in fact apprentices’s of the wizard. They use science to control society for the interest of some groups. Like Pinocchio, we are bound to something, to our creature, and like Pinocchio we have to cut the “strings” that bound us to our Geppettos.

One of the earliest paintings of Leonardo da Vinci, the Adoration of the Magi, is a testimony of the crisis a creative man may came across in his search of the absolute. Leonardo’s tragic destiny  starts to unfold malefic forces around him, with numerous material complications, or possibly he  restrains himself to acomplish the masterpiece, knowing that he already mastered all the techniques. Lorenzo il Magnifico, ruler of the Florentine Republic shows indiference towards Leonardo [Antonina Vallentin, in Leonardo da Vinci] and this hurts him a lot. As the time is running (like the Roman poet Virgilus wrote in his Georgics: Sed fugit interea fugit irreparabile tempus, singula dum capti circumvectamur amore) he fears for not having time to acquire the knowledge he deeply seeks. His pratical side drove him to invent a lot of apparatus intending to give to man the power over nature. Tempus fugit and a sensitive man feels the need to understand fully the how and why we are here…Andrei Tarkovsky, the russian movie director, incorporated motifs of The Adoration of the Magi in the narrative of his movie The Sacrifice (with music of Sebastian Bach Mattheus Passion, listen here), which represents his interpretation of the painting, but in a time reversal way, predicting instead of the bright beginning of humanity, the dark future of Western culture. Science and technology, only by themselves, do not fulfil the humankind needs.

Michelangelo captured the sublime moment of creation in his famous painting of the Sistine Chapel; Adam, with his arm stretched waiting for the finger of God touching, and apparently between man and God there is just an interposed- gap, that’s Michelangelo’s representation of life itself (p. 142, Ref.[1]).

This dramatic situation is well described by Erwin Schrodinger in one of the conferences organized by the Association Eranos, held in Asconna, Switzerland. He criticized the materialistic egotism of natural sciences and that ethics and moral cannot both be dissociated from the scientific research [3]. For the alchemist some knowledge must be kept in secret in order to not fall in the wrong hands, unpreprared politicians and rulers, because then they may serve the evil.The scientific method is certainly powerful, searching the causes of phenomena, analytic and methodic, aiming to formulate the laws that govern phenomena. But it potentiates the materialistic egotism typical of our actual societies, the consumist societies living with the only purpose to consume…

For some this may represent “The End of History” [4]. Science has the only purpose to answer to our “how ?”, not our “why ?”, which is the purpose of philosophy. Philosophy is predominantly synthetic, going from the particular to the general, critic and systematic, searching the «Why?» of these phenomena, their raison d’ être and their value. That ‘s why a world without science AND philosophy is open to tragedy.


[1] Scott Bukatman, in Beyond the finite: the Sublime in Art and Science, Ed. by Roald Hoffmann, Ian Boyd White p. 129 (OUP, New York, 2011)[2] The History of Magic, by Joseph Ennemoser, Translated from the German by William Howitt Vol I (Henry G. Bohn, London, 1854)[3] Friedrich W. Doucet, in O Livro de Ouro das Ciências Ocultas (Translation to Portuguese)[4] Jean Braudillard, The Illusion of the End (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1994)

Hello world!

14 Jul

Welcome to Science2be. As the title partially suggests, I am concerned about science, its meaning, its purpose, to understand nature, and how to use technology for the benefit of manking and not its enslaving.

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